This IPCC report unpacks the effects of global warming at 1.5 degrees Celsius. In the non-binding “Washington Declaration” agreed on 16 February 2007, the leaders of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, the United Kingdom, the United Kingdom, Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa agreed on the principle of a successor to the Kyoto Protocol. They envisaged a global cap-and-trade system that would apply to both developed and developing countries, and initially hoped that it would be in place by 2009.   The Montreal Protocol on ozone-depleting gases does not directly address climate change, but ozone-depleting gases contribute to global warming. The 1987 Montreal Protocol requires 196 nations to reduce ozone-depleting gas emissions, often used in refrigerators, foams and industrial applications. These gases dilute the ozone layer, so that more ultraviolet (UV) light can pass through the atmosphere. Increased exposure to UV light is associated with an increase in skin cancer. Monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of the actions undertaken There is a framework of transparency that will not be intrusive or penalizing, but which must be used to build trust between the various actors. It also foresees that from 2023, the United Nations will present a report every five years on the implementation of the agreement and the progress made from 2023 – the impact of climate contributions, the mobilization of financial and technological resources, global temperature forecasts, etc. Scientists have been warning for years of the disastrous consequences for the environment if global temperatures continue to rise at the current rate. The average temperature of the earth has already risen by about 1oC above pre-industrial levels.
In a 2018 special report, the IPCC predicted that without a drastic reduction in carbon emissions, the world will reach 1.5 degrees Celsius of warming between 2030 and 2052. The first commitment period of the protocol began in 2008 and ended in 2012. The 36 countries that fully participated in the first commitment period complied with the protocol. However, nine countries have had to resort to flexibility mechanisms by funding emission reductions in other countries, with their national emissions slightly above their targets. The 2007-08 financial crisis contributed to the reduction of emissions. The largest emission reductions were observed in the former Eastern Bloc countries because the dissolution of the Soviet Union reduced its emissions in the early 1990s.  Although the 36 developed countries reduced their emissions, global emissions increased by 32% between 1990 and 2010.  Human activity increases atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases – which tend to warm the atmosphere – and still in some aerosol regions – that tend to cool the atmosphere.